3.02How does the movie work with Tolkien's text?
As had become obvious with the animated movie in 1978 already, the material is incredibly complicated and extensive. Cuts had to be made even in this three movie version. The screenplay was written by Peter Jackson himself, Fran Walsh and Philippa Boyens. When seen from the level of plot elements that did or did not make it into the movie, a whole number of parallels exist between Bakshi’s movie and Jackson’s.
Much like Bakshi’s movie, it opens with a narration of the forging of the Rings, the battle of Dagorlad, and the way Bilbo found the Ring in Gollum’s cave. The scene with Sméagol and Déagol is left to be narrated in the third movie. A short scene, narrated by Bilbo and only seen in the extended DVD version, is to partly replace Tolkien’s prologue ‘Concerning Hobbits’ (T 1). The next scene, Frodo greeting Gandalf in Hobbiton, is not from the book, but the following discussion between Gandalf and Bilbo, the party itself and Bilbo’s leaving follow the book’s plot. After showing Gandalf in the library at Minas Tirith, Jackson tries to display part of the Hobbit spirit in a scene in the Green Dragon, a local pub. He then shows Gandalf’s return followed by the immediate leaving of Frodo, in this version only with Sam. Frodo and Sam (in the DVD version only) see a group of Elves leaving Middle-earth, but do not speak to them. Here a longish scene from the book1 is hinted at, but not completely worked out.
Exactly as in Bakshi’s movie, the meeting of Gandalf and Saruman is shown chronologically right at this point in the story and not later as a narration by Gandalf at the Council of Elrond. Frodo and Sam meet Merry and Pippin by chance in a field and are chased by farmer Maggot’s dogs. Again a hint towards the book2, but a twisted plot element. The Hobbits meet a Ringwraith, immediately cross the Brandywine River and soon reach Bree. Jackson advances through the story at a fast pace, delivering a tight action movie and leaving out, again exactly like Bakshi, Fredegar Bolger, Crickhollow, and the Old Forest with Tom Bombadil, the Barrow-wight and Old Man Willow. As the story advances very much like in the book, the Hobbits meeting with Strider at the Prancing Pony and leaving for Rivendell, Jackson intercuts it with scenes at Orthanc, showing how Saruman prepares his army.
After the attack on Weathertop and Frodo being struck by a Ringwraith’s blade, not the Elf Glorfindel comes to find them, but Elronds own daughter Arwen. Remember that Bakshi had chosen to replace Glorfindel by Legolas, as he is a character, who is needed throughout the entire story, but although Jackson’s replacement Arwen is a central character to Middle-earth history, she is not much more than mentioned in LOTR itself other than in the appendices. Peter Jackson chose to include Arwen to present his audience with a central female character which would otherwise have been missing from at least the first movie. Jackson had to take a lot of critique for this sort of serving the Hollywood needs of the cinema audiences, but it is true that Liv Tyler, in the role of Arwen, delivered a marvellous piece of acting. Although these scenes are not explicitly in Tolkien’s books, they definitely fit the surrounding plots. Frodo does not leave alone on Arwen’s horse as he did in Tolkien’s book and Bakshi’s movie, but crosses the Bruinen together with Arwen before he looses consciousness.
Frodo wakes up again in Rivendell and meets Gandalf, Elrond, his companions and his uncle Bilbo. Newly written scenes here include Elrond remembering the battle of Dagorlad 3000 years ago, a meeting between Aragorn and Boromir and one between Arwen and Aragorn, some of these are exclusive to the extended DVD version and much of this dialogue is in subtitled Elvish. The following Council of Elrond is somewhat shorter than in the book or in Bakshi’s movie, as Bilbo is not present. Another new scene shows Aragorn and Elrond at the grave of Aragorn’s mother.
After the Fellowship leaves Rivendell the plot of the book is closely followed to Caradhras, through Moria and later to Lothlórien, introducing, in the extended DVD version even the Elf Haldir, who was missing in Bakshi’s movie. The scene at the mirror of Galadriel is shortened as Sam is not present this time. Another made up scene of Saruman setting up his Uruk-hai forces prepares the viewer for what is to come at the end of the movie.
The eight fellows leave Lothlórien and follow the river Anduin arriving at Amon Hen. Here Boromir attacks Frodo and Frodo runs away, but within the very same scene the Fellowship is attacked by Saruman’s Uruk-hai. This battle is drawn into the first movie from the first chapter of ‘The Two Towers’ in order to create a typical end fight for the movie. Frodo and Sam leave their companions, Boromir dies admitting everything to Aragorn and the Uruk-hai take away the only two Hobbits they can find, Merry and Pippin. Aragorn, Legolas and Gimli decide not to follow Frodo and Sam, but to rescue Merry and Pippin, and so the movie closes with Frodo and Sam arriving on the eastern shore.
I will now again advance through the DVDs chapter by chapter analysing where the screenwriters Jackson, Walsh and Boyens made use of Tolkien’s text and where not. A more detailed analysis of the textual material will follow in chapter 3.03 in comparison to the German translation and its origins. Please refer to Appendix B, the full movie transcript, to clarify plot questions and dialogue matters.
Chapter 1/1 is the introduction to the story. Galadriel narrates the Ring’s history from its forging until Bilbo finds it. Other than Gollum calling the Ring his ‘precious’ most of this text is new and not quoted directly from Tolkien.
Chapter 1/2, a scene exclusive to the extended DVD version, describes the Hobbits from Bilbo’s point of view, much like Tolkien has done is his prologue ‘Concerning Hobbits, and other matters’ (T 1), but other than the phrase ‘...peace and quiet and good, tilled earth.’ the rest of the text is new.
Chapter 1/3 begins with Gandalf singing ‘The road goes ever on and on’ as he enters Hobbiton, one of the few songs and poems of Tolkien’s that Jackson chooses to include in his movie. In the book the song is sung for the first time by Bilbo as he leaves Bag End after the party on T 47. This scene, however, an early meeting of Gandalf and Frodo, is actually not from the book, but it serves well to establish a relationship between those two characters. By the end of this chapter Gandalf shoots a few of his firecrackers from his cart to make a few Hobbit children happy. Although this scene exists in the book, there Gandalf refuses to light a single firecracker before the party.
Chapter 1/4 has Bilbo welcome Gandalf at Bag End. Most of this scene is new, but a few lines of this dialogue are drawn from a later scene of Gandalf bidding Bilbo farewell after the party (T 42f).
Chapter 1/5 covers Bilbo’s birthday party, which consists of, mostly, changed dialogue and, although the end of the chapter, Bilbo’s farewell speech is mostly created true to the book, the text is not directly quoted.
T 39f... eleventy-one years is too short a time to live among such excellent and admirable hobbits. ... I don’t know half of you half as well as I should like and I like less than half of you half as well as you deserve. ... I regret to announce that ... this is the END. I am going. I am leaving NOW. GOOD-BYE!
J 1/05 Bilbo But alas, eleventyone years is far too short a time to live among such excellent and admirable Hobbits. I don't know half of you half as well as I should like, and I like less than half of you half as well as you deserve. I, er, I have things to do. I've put this off far too long. I regret to announce, this is the end. I'm going now. I bid you all a very fond farewell. Good-bye.
Chapter 1/6 shows Gandalf meeting Bilbo again after the party at Bag End, Bilbo’s home. Bilbo prepares to leave Hobbiton for ever and argues shortly with Gandalf about leaving the Ring behind. Bilbo calls the Ring ‘my precious’ for the first time, just like Gollum had before, but finally leaves it behind for Frodo. Three short pieces of dialogue are directly from Tolkien in the same scene. The chapter closes with Bilbo leaving and singing, just like in the book, ‘The road goes ever on and on’ (T 47).
Chapter 1/7 lets Gandalf leave Frodo and Hobbiton rather hastily, much unlike in the book. Gandalf’s first line ‘Riddles in the dark.’ is a hint towards a chapter in ‘The Hobbit’ titled ‘Riddles in the Dark’3. Gandalf’s line ‘Keep it secret! Keep it safe!’ is more or less directly from T 48 ‘... But keep it secret, and keep it safe! ...’.
Chapter 1/8 fills plot holes which, in the book, all are left to be filled much later, mostly with Gandalf’s narrations at the Council of Elrond. Here the audience hears Gollum scream ‘Shire! Baggins!’ in the torture chambers of Barad-dûr, after which the nine Ringwraiths, the Black Riders, leave Minas Morgul.
Then Gandalf is seen in the libraries at Minas Tirith reading from Isildur’s old notes about the Ring of Power. Some sentences of this text are from T 331:
T 331The Great Ring shall go now to be an heirloom of the North Kingdom; ... Already the writing upon it, which at first was as clear as red flame, fadeth and is now only barely to be read. ... I will risk no hurt to this thing: ... It is precious to me, though I buy it with great pain.
J 1/05 Gandalf (VO) ... It has come to me. The One Ring. It shall be an heirloom of my kingdom. All those who follow in my bloodline shall be bound to its fate, for I will risk no hurt to the Ring. It is precious to me, though I buy it with great pain. The markings upon the band begin to fade. The writing, which at first was as clear as red flame, has all but disappeared. A secret now that only fire can tell.
Apparently Jackson decides against using the old grammatical forms Tolkien used in his text (see 1.05).
The final bit of this chapter of the DVD shows a Black Rider asking a Hobbit about the Shire and the Bagginses.
Chapter 1/9 takes place at the local Hobbiton pub, the Green Dragon. The opening song ‘Hey, ho, to the bottle I go,’ is a changed version of a song Sam and Pippin sing on the road to Crickhollow ( T 119). The remainder of the scene is mostly new.
Chapter 1/10 has Gandalf return to Bag End to meet Frodo. In the book this happens 17 years after Bilbo’s leaving, but pace in the movie is much quicker. Gandalf makes sure that this actually is the One Ring he had read about in Minas Tirith and tells its story to Frodo. Although this is a longish scene, only a few lies are dialogue written exactly like this by Tolkien. The end of the chapter, Frodo remembering Bilbo’s advice is started as direct speech by Frodo but finished as a voiceover by Bilbo. This line is taken directly from T 98.
Chapter 1/11 shows Frodo and Sam on their way at night as they see a group of Elves leaving Middle-earth. In the book this was a longer scene involving the Elf Gildor and a whole evening with the Hobbits and the Elves. This scene, exclusive to the extended DVD version, is a mere hint towards that.
Chapter 1/12 is drawn to this early place within the plot from a narration of Gandalf at the Council of Elrond in the book (T 338ff). Gandalf argues and finally fights with Saruman at Orthanc. Although Gandalf’s narration of this scene in the book also provided direct speech for both himself and Saruman, none of that is included in the movie.
Chapter 1/13 is an attempt to reunite the plotlines of the book and the movie so far. Jackson had Frodo and Sam set out on their own, which is why they apparently meet Pippin and Merry, their other two Hobbit companions by chance on their way. Dialogue in this scene is new, but Jackson included a short dialogue part to hint at the title of Tolkien’s chapter ‘A Short Cut to Mushrooms’4.
... That was just a detour. A short cut.
Sam Shortcut to what?
Pippin Mushrooms! ...
Chapter 1/14, an attempt to escape the Black Rider that is, by now, following the Fellowship, had to be included to cover the gap left by leaving out farmer Maggot. As the scene is new, so is the dialogue.
Chapter 1/15 has the Hobbits arrive at Bree already, as Crickhollow and the entire Old Forest with Tom Bombadil and roughly four chapters of text5 has been cut out. The dialogue with Harry, the gatekeeper is partly taken from T 200. Although the scenes at the Prancing Pony are heavily shortened and the plot is followed rather directly, Most of the text is new. Merry’s encounter with the Ringwraiths on the streets of Bree as well as Frodo’s song, elements present in Bakshi’s movie, are missing here.
Chapter 1/16, after the Wraiths’ attack in Bree, shows Aragorn and the Hobbits on their way to Weathertop. Although there is much text here, all but the line ‘I think a servant of the enemy would look fairer, and feel fouler.’ (from T 226) is new. Jackson uses the opportunity of this scene to show, in a new piece of dialogue, how the Hobbits are constantly hungry and eat all day.
Chapter 1/17 takes the company trough the Midgewater Marshes. Sam’s line ‘What are they eatin’ when they can't get Hobbit?’ is from T 241. This chapter is not part of the cinematic version.
Chapter 1/18, one of the chapters introducing Saruman’s army, is not from the book.
Chapter 1/19, Weathertop, the attack of the Wraiths and Frodo being wounded, follows the plot of Tolkien’s chapter ‘A Knife in the Dark’6, but with changed dialogue.
Chapter 1/20 has no spoken dialogue.
Chapter 1/21 shows the Elf Arwen, who finds the company. She replaces the Elf Glorfindel from Tolkien’s book as Legolas had done in Bakshi’s movie. After a longish dialogue in Elvish with Aragorn, she saves Frodo from the Ringwraiths. Dialogue in this scene, with the sole exception of the Elvish line ‘Noro lim, Asfaloth!’ (Ride fast, Asfaloth!) (T 280) is new.
Chapter 1/22 is the first one in Rivendell. As Frodo wakes up and sees Gandalf next to his bed, a few lines are taken directly from the book, but the remainder of the scene, Gandalf remembering a piece of dialogue with Saruman on top of the tower Orthanc, is new.
Chapter 1/23 has Frodo meet Bilbo and Sam again. Although these meetings exist in Tolkien’s book, they are presented differently here, as Jackson needs this time to deepen the relationships between these Hobbits.
Chapter 1/24 is not from the cinematic version and, although it is not, in detail, from the book either, it helps to understand Elronds position in the history of the ring.
Chapter 1/25 shows an early meeting of Aragorn and Boromir, who apparently does not know yet who Aragorn really is. One line spoken by Arwen in her following encounter with Aragorn, ‘You are Isildur's heir, not Isildur himself.’ is taken from T 325, where Aragorn himself utters a similar line at the Council of Elrond: ‘I am but the heir of Isildur, not Isildur himself.’.
Chapter 1/26, the continuing, mostly Elvish, dialogue between Aragorn and Arwen takes place in a forest. As both chapters do not actually derive from the book, the dialogue is new.
Chapter 1/27 covers the Council of Elrond and concludes the first DVD. As mentioned before, unlike Tolkien’s original version or Bakshi’s animated version, Bilbo is not present at this meeting. A number of lines in this scene is from Tolkien’s book, though not necessarily from this scene.
T 322‘In that dream I thought the eastern sky grew dark and there was a growing thunder, but in the West a pale light lingered, and out of it I heard a voice, remote but clear, crying: ...’
J 1/27 Boromir ... In a dream I saw the eastern sky grow dark, but in the West a pale light lingered. A voice was crying: ...
Jackson avoids the following poem by Tolkien (‘Seek for the sword that was broken:’) and replaces it by plain straight text.
T 523‘... It’s a gift, I say; a gift to the foes of Mordor. It is mad not to use it, ...’
J 1/27 Boromir Aye, it is a gift. A gift to the foes of Mordor. Why not use this Ring?
This line of Boromir is drawn here from the very end of the book as Boromir tries to convince Frodo to surrender the Ring to him.
T 226‘I am Aragorn son of Arathorn; and if by life or death I can save you I will.’
J 1/27 Aragorn If by my life or death I can protect you, I will. ...
This line, spoken by Aragorn, has also been moved through the storyline. Aragorn delivers it much earlier in the book, as he introduces himself to Frodo at the Prancing Pony. Both the last two examples serve to show how Jackson, Walsh and Boyens, the screenwriters for this movie, decided, on the one hand, to twist the plot of Tolkien’s story not insignificantly, but on the other hand, to use as many of Tolkien’s original lines as possible, even if that meant shifting them through the plot and, sometimes, even having other characters deliver them.
T 357‘... There must be someone with intelligence in the party.’ ’Then you certainly will not be chosen, Peregrin Took!’ said Gandalf, ...
Anyway, you need people of intelligence on this sort of, mission. Quest. Thing.
Merry Well, that rules you out, Pip.
This scene, again, is not from the Council of Elrond in Tolkien’s book, but from the following chapter, as in that version only Sam sneaks into the Council. Note the way Jackson changes Gandalf’s line and puts it into the mouth of Merry in order to create a funnier dialogue.
Chapter 2/1, the first one of the second DVD, is not from the book and serves to clarify the connection Aragorn has to Rivendell as Elrond explains that Aragorn’s mother Gilraen is buried there.
Chapter 2/2, Bilbo giving his sword Sting and his mithril shirt away to Frodo is from T 364, but the dialogue has been rewritten.
Chapter 2/3 has the Fellowship leave Rivendell. Elrond’s last words to them are taken from Tolkien’s original almost word for word.
Chapter 2/4 shows the Fellowship on their way South making up their minds which road to take. This scene exists in a different form in the book, but a few of the lines concerning the birds Saruman sent to look for them are quoted, although put in the mouths of different characters.
‘It may be nothing, only a wisp of thin cloud.’
‘It was moving fast then,’ muttered Aragorn, ‘and not with the wind.’
J 2/4 Gimli Nothing. It's just a wisp of cloud.
Boromir It's moving fast. Against the wind.
‘... they are crebain out of Fangorn and Dunland. ...’
J 2/4 Legolas Crebain from Dunland!
Chapter 2/5 takes place on the mountain Caradhras. A short new scene at the beginning of the chapter is included to foreshadow Boromir’s obsession with the Ring. Although this scene is new, his line is a slightly changed line again out of the final chapter to ‘The Fellowship of the Ring’7.
T 522‘The Ring! Is it not a strange fate that we should suffer so much fear and doubt for so small a thing? So small a thing? ...’
J 2/5 Boromir It is a strange fate that we should suffer so much fear and doubt over so small a thing. Such a little thing.
Although the remainder of this DVD chapter, the scenes in the snow storm on the mountain Caradhras, are from Tolkien’s book, most of the dialogue is new.
Chapter 2/6 has the Fellowship arrive at the western Gate of Moria. Only a few lines are from Tolkien’s text.
Chapter 2/7 is the first one inside the Moria Mines. Gandalfs introducing words are taken from three different scenes within Tolkien’s book, all from within the Mines of Moria, but set in a different plot situation.
T 406‘... There are older and fouler things than Orcs in the deep places of the world.’
T 416‘The wealth of Moria was not in gold and jewels, ...’
T 417‘... Bilbo had a corselet of mithril-rings that Thorin gave him. ...’
J 2/7 Gandalf ... There are older and fouler things than Orcs in the deep places of the world. ... The wealth of Moria was not in gold or jewels but mithril. Bilbo had a shirt of mithril rings that Thorin gave him.
Chapter 2/8 shows the Fellowship at the tomb of Gimli’s cousin Balin. The Dwarves’ notes Gandalf reads out as well as one bit of dialogue after the attack of the cave troll are from Tolkien’s original.
T 430‘...That spear-thrust would have skewered a wild boar!’
‘There is more about you than meets the eye, ...’
You should be dead. That spear would have skewered a wild boar.
Aragorn I think there's more to this Hobbit than meets the eye.
Chapter 2/9 concludes the voyage through the mines of Moria with Gandalf fighting the Balrog. Most of Gandalf’s lines here are taken from the original text.
T 433‘I am a servant of the Secret Fire, wielder of the flame of Anor. You cannot pass. The dark fire will not avail you, flame of Udûn. Go back to the Shadow! You cannot pass.’
J 2/9 Gandalf I am a servant of the Secret Fire, wielder of the flame of Anor. The dark fire will not avail you, flame of Udûn! Go back to the Shadow. You shall not pass!
Note that Peter Jackson tries to have Gandalf sound even a little more old fashioned and possibly even more mystical by changing Tolkien’s plain ‘You cannot pass’ into ‘You shall not pass’.
Chapter 2/10 on the DVD is a vastly extended rendition of the same scene in the cinematic version. The company meets Haldir, who takes them to Caras Galadhon in Lothlórien. Some of the dialogue here is in Elvish, but much has also been changed into English from Elvish, which was unprinted, but delivered in speech translated by Legolas in the book.
T 448‘Yes, they are Elves,’ said Legolas; ‘and they say that you breathe so loud that they could shoot you in the dark.’
J 2/10 Haldir The Dwarf breathes so loud, we could have shot him in the dark.
Chapter 2/11, the first one in Caras Galadhon, consists of large portions of dialogue text from Tolkien’s original book. Mostly this text derives from the same scene in the book8, Galadriel and Celeborn welcoming the Fellowship in Caras Galadhon, but one line, delivered by Galadriel as a voiceover, is a changed version of a sentence Galadriel utters much later in the book.
T 479‘... But it cannot be hidden from the Ring-bearer, and one who has seen the Eye. ...’
J 2/11 Galadriel (VO) Welcome, Frodo of the Shire one who has seen the Eye!
Although this is not a complete quotation, the screenwriters chose to have Galadriel call Frodo ‘one who has seen the Eye’ (of Sauron), like she does in the book. It may be argued that the high degree of change Tolkien’s text had to undergo to be fitted into this screenplay twisted it too much out of shape, but it is small details as this one, that show with what devotion and care for the original text the screenplay was written.
In the second part of the chapter, a scene included only in the extended DVD version, Sam rhymes a poem about Gandalf and his fireworks (‘The finest rockets ever seen.’), which is taken directly from T 473.
Chapter 2/12, in comparison to its version in Tolkien’s text or even in Bakshi’s movie, is strongly cut. Only Frodo looks into Galadriel’s mirror and even his visions are shorter than in the book. The remaining dialogue, however, especially Galadriel’s monologue as Frodo offers the Ring of Power to her, is almost completely from the book.
Chapter 2/13, much like chapter 1/18, shows Saruman in Isengard preparing his army. These scenes have been written to prepare the viewer for the fight that is yet to follow.
Chapter 2/14 shows the Fellowship departing from Lothlórien. apart from a few details the plot here follows the book, but the dialogue is mostly new. Only a few lines to and by Gimli and Frodo are taken as they were written by Tolkien.
Chapter 2/15 covers the voyage down the river Anduin. Most of the dialogue is new, but serves well to deepen the relationships between the characters.
Chapter 2/16, the arrival at Sarn Gebir and Boromir’s attack on Frodo, begins much like it does in the book, with especially the dialogue between Frodo and Boromir as a true version of Tolkien’s text. Note that a few of Boromir’s lines from this scene were instead used by Jackson in earlier scenes in chapter 1/27 and chapter 2/5.
The end of this chapter is a slightly changed version of what is to be read in the book, because Saruman’s Uruk-hai troops, originally from the first chapter of Tolkien’s second volume ‘The Two Towers’9, arrive now already. Aragorn’s farewell to Frodo is completely new and was not written like this by Tolkien.
Chapter 2/17 shows the fight between Saruman’s Uruk-hai and the fellowship as Frodo flees to the shore. The little dialogue spoken in this scene is not from Tolkien’s text with the possible exception of one line spoken by Aragorn in the first chapter of ‘The Two Towers’, which is changed in the movie and spoken by Legolas.
T2 5‘The horn of Boromir!’10
J 2/17 Legolas The horn of Gondor!
Chapter 2/18 is a dialogue between Aragorn and the lethally wounded Boromir. He confesses to Aragorn that he tried to take the Ring and tells him that the Uruk-hai took away Merry and Pippin. There is a similar dialogue in the first chapter of ‘The Two Towers’, but merely one little changed line is taken from there.
T2 6‘I tried to take the Ring from Frodo,’
J 2/18 Boromir ... I tried to take the Ring from him.
Chapter 2/19 concludes the extended DVD version of ‘The Fellowship of the Ring’. Frodo and Sam leave on their own to Mordor and Aragorn, Gimli and Legolas leave to save Merry and Pippin. A number of lines from Tolkien’s book are used, but a few are changed.
‘But I am going to Mordor.’
’I know that well enough, Mr. Frodo. Of course you are. And I’m coming with you.’
No, Sam. Go back, Sam! I'm going to Mordor alone.
Sam Of course you are. And I'm coming with you!
Frodo using the word ‘alone’ together with Sam’s reply creates a funny situation that was not intended by Tolkien.
The second scene of this chapter shows the three remaining members of the Fellowship, Aragorn, Gimli and Legolas making up their minds on how to continue their quest. The dialogue in this scene is new, although similar scenes exist in ‘The Two Towers’.
1A part of The Fellowship of the Ring, Book 1, Chapter III, ‘Three is company’
2The Fellowship of the Ring, Book 1, Chapter IV, ‘A Short Cut to Mushrooms’
3The Hobbit, Chapter V
4The Fellowship of the Ring, Book 1, Chapter IV, T 113
5The Fellowship of the Ring, Book 1, Chapters V - VIII
6The Fellowship of the Ring, Book 1, Chapter XI
7The Fellowship of the Ring, Book 2, Chapter X, ‘The Breaking of the Fellowship’
8The beginning of The Fellowship of the Ring, Book 2, Chapter VII ‘The Mirror of Galadriel’
9The Two Towers, Book 1, Chapter I ‘The Departure of Boromir’
10I use the marking ‘T2’ to indicate quotations from The Two Towers in Tolkien’s English version.